Volume 44 Number 17


Engineering Series

Engineering Experiment Station -- Bulletin No.32 -1943

Cross-Connection Survey In Calhoun County, Michigan


Edward Lee Stockton

In Cooperation With The

W.K. Kellog Foundation

Battle Creek, Michigan



The following is a partial list of dangerous cross-connections that may be found in an average community


  1. Air-conditioning equipment with dual safe and unsafe water supplies,

or with direct sewer connection for waste water.

2. Aquariums with below-the-rim connections.

3. Aspirators as used in funeral homes for operations.

4. Automatic devices for sealing floor drains.

5. Bathtubs with below-the-rim connections.

6. Bar sinks with submerged inlets.

7. Bendix washing machines with submerged inlets (or similar type).

8. Bird baths with submerged inlets.

9. Boiler drains solid to sewer.

10. Cellar drains of the water-ejector type.

11. Cisterns cross-connected to pure water lines.

12. Closets with drip waste to sewer or polluted ground area.

13. Closets of the hopper type with manual or automatic flushing apparatus.

14. Closets equipped with flush valves attached to bowl.

15. Coffee urns with submerged inlets.

16. Combination faucets with one safe and one unsafe supply.

17. Cookers with submerged inlets.

18. Cow watering troughs with submerged inlets.

19. Cross-Connections between safe and unsafe supplies, sprinkler systems and the like.

20. Cuspidors with water supply connections.

21. Dental chairs with submerged inlets.

22. Dish washers with water inlet below the rim or with direct sewer connection on waste line.

23. Drinking fountains with submerged inlets, water supply connections

through waste lines, or waste lines directly connected to sewer.

24. Dual water supplies, such as hot water supply from an unsafe source.25. Egg boilers with common waste and supply lines, submerged inlets, or waste lines directly connected to sewer.

26. Ejectors actuated by direct water connections27. Faucet flush valve in catch basin

28. Filters with waste connected directly to sewer line.

29. Fire supply from unsafe source directly connected to pure water supply.

30. Fire supply from safe source directly connected to sewer.

31. Fish ponds with submerged inlets:

32. Floor drains with flushing connections.

33. Flush-boxes with submerged inlets

34. Flush valves not protected by siphon breakers.

35. Foot tubs with submerged supplies.

36. Fountains with submerged supplies or supplies connected through waste lines.

37. Frost-proof closets with bleeder line connected to sewer or polluted ground area.

38. Furnace humidifier boxes with submerged inlets.

39. Glass tumbler washers in beverage sinks with submerged supplies.

40. Hot water heater drain directly. connected to sewer.

41. Ice cream scoop washers with submerged supplies.

42. Industrial vats with submerged supplies.

43. Instrument sterilizing tank with submerged supplies or direct sewer . connections.

44. Integral flush-box and toilet bowl.

45. Kitchen equipment with common waste and supply lines, with submerged

inlets, or with waste line direct connected to sewer.

46. Laundry tubs with submerged inlets:

47. Lavatories with submerged inlets or with hose extending below rim, such as barbers' and beauticians' hair-washing apparatus.

48. Lawn sprinklers with subgrade outlets:

49. Leaky water mains or services near sewers.

50. Photostat machines with submerged inlets.

51. Pumps used for dual purposes with one safe and one unsafe supply.

52. Pumps used for unsafe materials and having a direct connected water supply for priming.

53. Pump pits with drain connected to sump or sewer line.

54. Refrigeration equipment with water cooling.

55. Rubber hose connections extending water lines to below the overflow rim of sinks, lavatories, tanks, tubs, and the like.

56. Sealing rings on sewage pumps with direct water connections.

57. Scum drains from swimming pools directly connected to sewer.

58. Sewage lifts with direct water connections.

59. Sewers or waste lines running over open pure water tanks, ice water,

60. Showers with one safe and one unsafe supply.

61. Sinks with below-the-rim supplies.

62. Soap kettles with submerged supplies.

63. Soda fountain sinks with submerged supplies.

64. Steam tables with common waste and supply lines, with submerged supply lines, or with waste lines directly connected to sewer.

65. Steam welding unit cooling water directly connected to sewer.

66. Steam vacuum pumps directly connected to sewer.

67. Swimming pools with direct water connections.

68. Siphon flush-tanks with water connections below the overflow rim.

69. Siphon-jet toilet bowls with flush valves directly connected.

70. Tanks with submerged supply or below-the-rim. supply.

71. Therapeutic baths with submerged inlets.

72. Urinals with flush valves not protected by siphon breakers.

73. Vats with inverted supplies or below-the-rim supplies.

74. Vegetable peelers with direct-connected waste lines.

75. Washers with common waste and supply lines, with submerged inlets, or with direct-connected waste lines.

76. Waste lines from cooling equipment; condensers or water jackets directly connected to sewer or submerged in slop sink, floor drain or other fixture. _

77. Water cooled grease interceptors with direct water connection.

78. Water coolers improperly designed and using toxic refrigerants that may pollute the water supply.

79. Water softeners with direct sewer connections or with submerged inlets to solution tanks.

80. X-Ray tanks with submerged inlets.

81. Yard hydrants so constructed that polluted water may drain into the water supply lines.